麦汁过滤困难?精酿设备过滤槽该如何正确操作

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目前精酿啤酒厂大多采用的是过滤槽法来进行麦汁过滤。 时不时有许多酿酒师朋友抱怨精酿设备不好操作,特多是麦汁过滤困难,糟层压紧了滤不动。 如果是在进行‘麦汁回流’的时候发现过滤困难无法进行回流操作,解决办法还是比较简单的: 启动过滤槽电机,缓慢转动耕刀疏松一下糟层,然后停止耕刀静置几分钟,再重新尝试进行麦汁回流的操作,同时‘麦汁回流’要慢一些。如果麦汁回流还是很困难,可以进行下“顶水”,从过滤槽底部泵入少量热水疏松下压实的糟层或者堵塞的麦汁收集口。

再次尝试回流时,如果过滤泵配有变频器,要将泵速调节到缓慢的状态;如果没有配变频器,阀门打开时不要操之过急,先开1/4或1/3的开度,根据回流情况,再适度开大。配有变频器的泵和阀门也可以配合操作。

如果是在洗糟的时候发生过滤困难,这时候还是要启动过滤槽电机对糟层进行缓慢的疏松同时进行洗糟,这样会使收集的第二麦汁混浊,操作得当的话对啤酒的质量影响不是很大。

那么 避免发生这些问题,总比发生了问题再去解决要好的多。可能精酿啤酒设备的过滤槽在设计之初或生产中存在一些问题,比如过滤槽筛板面积偏小,筛板开孔率和开孔宽度不合理,麦汁收集口设计不科学等等,另一方面,发生过滤困难的原因也很可能是操作不当。

作为酿酒师来讲,利用现有的设备进行合理的酿造操作始终是正确的打开方式,。

避免糟层被压紧.

顶水: 正常来讲,糖化醪液泵送至过滤槽内后,停止耕刀旋转让醪液静置10~20分钟后,糖化醪液中的麦糟会逐渐沉降在筛板上,形成天然的过滤层,这个天然滤层会很自然地使回流均匀持续速度正常合理且不断回流的麦汁逐渐清亮。而在把糖化醪液从糖化锅泵入过滤槽之前(不少精酿设备是,糖化/过滤一体锅,相同操作),需要从热水罐泵送少量78度热水至过滤槽,热水从过滤槽底部进入并刚好没过筛板。顶入的热水可以起到防止糟层压紧。

流速: 打开阀门在进行麦汁回流或者洗糟的时候,如果一开始阀门开度过大同时泵速过高,会始得糟层很快被抽吸压紧。所以要合理控制阀门开度和泵速,使得麦汁流速均匀合理。

麦芽粉碎:麦芽粉的过细会使得醪液粘度大同样会造成过滤困难,因此麦芽粉碎要粗细得当。麦芽粉碎通常要求麦皮要破而不碎,粗细得当会使得静置后的麦糟层上下分布均匀,麦汁径流阻力小且抽取流速快。分布均匀的糟层,顶层是醪液析出的蛋白质及碎屑类物质,中层即是麦糟,底层是一些大粒粗粒物。

糖化醪粘度: 糖化醪液中的高分子蛋白质和β-葡聚糖会增加醪液粘度并引起过滤困难。因此,如果一些糖化时添加一些原麦,例如未经发芽的小麦和燕麦,会容易发生过滤困难的情况。在糖化时使用升温糖化法,在适宜的温度促使蛋白质休止可以减少糖化醪液的粘度。

另外糖化醪液粘度还和温度有关系,较高的温度一定程度上可以降低醪液粘度因此过滤槽是需要带有保温层的。多数酿酒师的经验是尽量保持过滤槽温度在75度时,可以比较好的进行过滤。

原料使用:酿造时如果添加小麦芽或者黑麦芽,由于没有麦壳,所以添加的这部分原料在过滤时不会形成滤层,所以可以人为添加一些大麦芽的碎壳,燕麦壳或者大米壳进行助滤。

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